The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry

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Invented in 1998 by the American chemists Paul Anastas and John C. Warner, Green chemistry lays the foundations for a chemistry that respects humans, their environment and future generations.

The 12 Principles: 

1) POLLUTION PREVENTION

It is better to prevent waste than to treat and clean up waste after it is formed.

2) ATOM ECONOMY

Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.

3) LESS HAZARDOUS SYNTHESIS

Whenever practicable, synthetic methodologies should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.

4) DESIGN SAFER CHEMICALS

Chemical products should be designed to preserve efficacy of the function while reducing toxicity

5) SAFER SOLVENTS AND AUXILIARIES

The use of auxiliary substances (solvents, separations agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary whenever possible and, when used, innocuous.

6) DESIGN FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Energy requirements should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. Synthetic methods should be conducted to ambient temperature and pressure.

7) USE OF RENEWABLE FEEDSTOCKS

A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practical.

8) REDUCE DERIVATIVES

Unnecessary derivatization (blocking group, protection/deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be avoided whenever possible.

9) CATALYSIS

Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

10) DESIGN FOR DEGRADATION

Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they do not persist in the environment and instead breakdown into innocuous degradation products.

11) REAL-TIME ANALYSIS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

12) INHERENTLY SAFER CHEMISTRY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION

Substance and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions and fires.

 

ANASTAS, P. T., & WARNER, J. C. (2014). Green chemistry: theory and practice. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

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